According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, and Thirumayilai are mentioned in the Thevarams of the Moovar (of the Nayanmars) while Thiruvallikeni in the Nalayira Divya Prabhandhams (of the Alwars). Madras . Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India) Formerly known as Madras, the modern city of Chennai has a long history as a settled area, beginning more than 1,000 years ago. Srinivasanar was an extremist. In turn, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920. [12] In 1953, the political and administrative dominance of Tamils, both at the Union and State levels ensured that Madras was not transferred to the new state of Andhra. These settlers and their families spread throughout India or settled in the cities, with Madras being one of their principal entry points. former Indian state (modern Chennai, a Tamil name), the name sometimes is said to be from Sanskrit Mandra, a name of a god of the underworld, but it is perhaps rather from Arabic madrasa "school" (see madrasah) or Portuguese Madre (de Deus).The British fort there dates from 1639. Under British rule, the city grew into a major urban centre and naval base. Madras was called as Madras Province which comprised earlier the south Indian states of Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andra Pradesh, and Karnataka. The first Grant of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu makes mention of the village of Madraspatnam as incorporated into East India lands but not of Chennapatnam. To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town. CHIDAMBARAM ANNIE BESANT The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this organization. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. [1] It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the early stone age. Each time, the survivors fell back upon the safety of the Fort St George. Instead, it is likely that Fort was built either close to the village or if it was built upon the village, the village was relocated. Those who uphold this theory favour the view that the Tamils belong to the Dravidian race and were part of the early Indus Valley settlers. While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. The History of Tamil Nadu … By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. Beri Thimmappa, Francis Day's dubash (interpreter), was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured at last. It is dated October - November 1645. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. • Madras was the first major British settlement in India, and until 1774 was the capital of the entire British Empire in the east, which stretched from India to Indonesia. history of madurai in tamil . The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. (i) Madras Native Association was founded in 1852. It was named after the Christian leader of reforms, St. Thomas who preached in the area between 52 and 70 A.D. Ellāḷaṉ statue in the premises of Madras High Court. To trace the history of the oldest neighbourhood of Madras, one has to get acquainted with a Welsh Merchant who went by the name Thomas Parry. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. A popular explanation is that the name comes from the name of Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, Nayaka of Chandragiri and Vandavasi, father of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Because the Raja operated an arbitrary and capricious legal code which fundamentally discriminated against private property, trade, and merchandising in general, and against non-Indians in particular, the new grant signed in 1645 expanded the rights of the English by empowering them to administer English Common Law amongst their colonists and Civil Law between the colonists and the other European, Muslim, and Hindu nationalities. He had his headquarters at Wandiwash, and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, where he looked after the affairs of the coast. History Of Tamil Nadu. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. The state’s Telugu-speaking areas were separated to form part of the new state of SUBRAMANIA SIVA V.O. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. The region of Tamil Nadu (now one of the states in the south of the Republic of India) has been under continuous human habitation since prehistoric times. The demands for the immediate creation of a Telugu-speaking state were met with after Tirupati was included in Andhra State and after the leaders who led the movement were convinced to give up their claim on Madras. (ii) Tamil nationalist periodical Swadesamitran was started in 1891. Similar to the versions of the origin of the name Madras, there are various such versions related to the origin of the name Chennai as well. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. During the course of the late 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the colony dramatically. In 1912 endowments were made to the University to establish departments of Indian History, Archaeology, Comparative Philology and Indian Economics. [11] The dispute arose as over the preceding hundred years, the early British, European workers and small cottage capitalists had been replaced in large part by both Tamil and Telugu speaking people. Alternative Titles: Ceṉṉai, Madras, Madraspatnam Chennai, formerly Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. ORIGIN OF ISC* By Prof. (Dr.) K. Chockalingam** Founder Secretary, ISC . During World War I, Madras (Chennai) was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden, resulting in 5 civilian deaths and 26 wounded. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. Learn how and when to remove this template message, the British victory in the Seven Years' War, "District profile - Chennai district administration- official website", The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume, Volume 1939, http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm, http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/chennai-gets-unesco-recognition-for-music-117110801271_1.html, History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras, Picasa Gallery - Historical Photos of Madras, 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike, 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India), Government Multi Super-speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chennai&oldid=998331481, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 22:24. The city has changed its boundaries as well as the geographic limits of its quarters several times, principally as a result of raids by surrounding Hindu and Muslim powers. Thus it is improbable that the area was ever called Chennai. It was from Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu domain, on 22 August 1639, the piece of land lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea and another river known as the Egmore river was granted to East India Company after deed from Vijaynagara emperor. The Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya, and Vijaynagar the noticeable dynasties ruled over Chennai. The Department of comparative Philology, Oriental Research Institute, University of Madras first began its researches in Tamil in 1914. After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. As the East India Company controlled the trade in the area, these non-British merchants established agreements with the Company for settling on Company land near "White Town" per agreements with the Nayak. In the latter part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. Although they remained in control of the original corporations and businesses of Madras, and were the official representatives of the Imperial government, their communities size relative to the larger Indian population in Madras ensured their eventual demise should democratic control be given to Indian nationalities in place of the older Colonial charters. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. Therefore, from 1965 to 1967, the city saw agitations against this two language (Hindi and local language) policy, and witnessed sporadic rioting. But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. As stipulated by the Treaty signed with the Nayak, the British and other Christian Europeans were not allowed to decorate the outside of their buildings in any other color but white. In 1639, the local Indian rulers granted the East India Company a parcel of land upon which a fort was built as a residence for British settlers. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. It is a major manufacturing centre. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras. After India became independent in 1947, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of Madras State which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968. Tamil Nadu Elevation – 6m (20ft)Coordinates:13.08389°N 80.27000°E Connectivity Map Bibliography on Tamil History, Ethnicity, Culture, Srilankan Tamils and Tamilnadu Politics, posted by Tamil Electronic Library ... Madras Presidency, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.158-159 (data of 1926-1928); India and Dependencies : Madras States, ibid. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Architecture photos available for quick and easy download. The 2004 tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai killing many. John Binny came to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Co in 1814. Madras war ein Zentrum der ab dem frühen 20. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years. Dhanu. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Contact our Advertising team for Advertising or Sponsorship on TravelAgents.com Network. 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu The Home rule Movement in Madras was organized by Mrs. Annie Besant between 1916 and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s decision to launch a Home Rule Movement appeared in New India in September 1915. It in honor of the later village upon which the British named the entire colony and the combined city Madras. Eventually, after additional provocations from Golkonda, the British pushed back until they defeated him. The Dioceses of Chingleput, Coimbatore, Ootacamund and Vellore … Speaking on the debate, Opposition Leader P.G. iStock University Of Madras In Chennai Tamil Nadu India Stock Photo - Download Image Now Download this University Of Madras In Chennai Tamil Nadu India photo now. Tamil Nadu was very active during the Non-cooperation Movement under the leadership of C Rajagopalachari and E V Ramaswamy. Consequently, once the area separating Chennapatnam and Old Madras was built over uniting the two settlements, as founders, settlers, and authorities of area, the English named the new united city Madras. The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. After India's Independence, the state of Madras came into existence and 1968, the name was changed to Tamil Nadu. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. Additionally, the pre-city area of Chennai has a long history within the records of South Indian Empires. Another small town, Chennapatnam, lay to the south of it. Related: Madrasi. By the end of 1783, the great 18th century wars which saw the British and French battle from Europe to North America and from the Mediterranean to India, resulted in the British being in complete control of the city's regional and most of South India area. Today, they are the … Under Hindu caste code, as well as English Common Law, it is unlikely that Fort St. George was built upon the village of Madraspatnam and its inhabitants incorporated into the new town. Following the Treaty of Madras which brought that war to an end, the external threats to Madras significantly decreased. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached 10,000 people when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population. The English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is: "Learning promotes (one's) natural (innate) talent." Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. In fact, as the greater concentration of capital wrecked what remained of old East Indian middle class, the city principally became a large housing development for huge numbers of workers. Along with Tamil Nadu, the other northern modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were conquered by the British in the late 18th century. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. On 22nd August 1639, a small piece of land was purchased by the British East India Company which is located on the Coromandel Coast in Chandragiri from Peda Venkata Raya, king of Vijayanagar. [6] Ayyappa Nayakudu persuaded his brother to lease the sandy strip to Francis Day and promised him trade benefits, army protection, and Persian horses in return. Tamil Nadu has a very ancient history that dates back to some 6000 years and the origin of its people is closely tied to the debates of the Aryan invasion theory. Anavaratanayakam Pillai, Sri.S. However, from 1960s, the Central government started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government. This new area saw a proliferation of English merchant and planter families who, allied with their wealthy Indian counterparts, jointly controlled Chennapatnam under the supervision of White Town. 1 Loction 2 Earlier 3 Population 4 Well known for It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. As more and more Indians arrived from the countryside to work in the city, the British and other Europeans found it increasingly difficult to establish or maintain independent wealth as they had during the early East Indian regime. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. English; বাংলা ; ગુજરાતી; हिन्दी; ಕನ್ನಡ; മലയാളം; తెలుగు; ଓଡ଼ିଆ; தமிழ்; செய்திகள் . Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. Tamil Nadu Information - History Of Tamil Nadu. Part of the fortune that he amassed in Madras as part of the colonial administration became the financial foundation for Yale University. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. Found 12 sentences matching phrase "Madras".Found in 2 ms. the period when the British gained possession of the area. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". Dieser wurde 1956 durch den States Reorganisation Act nach den Sprachgrenzen des Tamil neu formiert und 1969 in Tamil Nadu umbenannt. Elihu Yale, after whom Yale University is named, was British governor of Madras for five years. Canadian Administrative Law Blog. 19. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). (iv) V.S. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became independent rulers of Kanchipuram and its surrounding areas. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. However, by the early 20th century they had become a small minority in their own city. My Thoughts on Life, Travels and Culture. CC BY-SA 2.0. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. Showing page 1. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. The Chola occupation of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the Andhra Satavahana incursions from the north under their King Pulumayi II. Mylapore was a major port of the Pallava. This new grant is important regarding the legal and civic development of the English settlement. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tonda… Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province. The Early History of Madras (Chennai) Fort St. George, in Madras (Chennai) on the Coromandel Coast, India (1753) About 1620 the East India Company established another factory at Masulipatam on the eastern side of India. This new grant laid the foundation for the expansion of Madras into its present form. Similar to the versions of the origin of the name. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. Today, modern Chennai, formerly known as Madras is a large cultural, commercial and industrial centre, and is known for its cultural heritage and temple architecture. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. A new grant was issued, copies of which are still available. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyer made a name for himself representing claimants, mostly wealthy Hindus and Muslims who had lent money on the failed bank. The arrival of the railway in India during the 19th century helped the city to connect with other crucial cities like Mumbai and Kolkata which encouraged communication and trading in the surrounding area. Francis Day and his superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai). They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and later Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore in 1767 during the First Anglo-Mysore War. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. A Congress volunteer corps of about 1000 members was set up to … Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. By 1612, the Dutch established themselves in Pulicat to the north. Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. So, he suggested that the name ought to be ‘Tamil Nadu-Madras State’. Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Several times throughout the life of the colony, the Fort became the last refuge of Europeans and their allied Indian communities due to raids by several Indian rulers and powers, which resulted in the almost total destruction of the town. The history of Tamil Nadu from the mid-17th century to 1946 is the story of the British-controlled Madras Presidency in relationship to the rise and fall of British power in India. It was considered as a part of the empire of the King of Chandragiri, the period when the British arrived in 1639 A.D. Further; it was named as Chennapattanam by the British when they acquired it from Chennappa Nayaka, the leader of Vijayanagar. Madras in South India was a port town ideally situated on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. … They requested Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam in Java could be obtained for their action. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. Madras translation in English-Tamil dictionary. Although the original inhabitants of Madras and responsible for its growth into the modern metropolis of today, the British and European nationals are virtually non-existent. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. In the Tamil language, the … This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. This was the period when the Madras Presidency was established with Madras as the capital. Tanjore Big Temple Mysteries - Secret of Cholas - … Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. In 1927, a separate Tamil Department was established in the Institute. For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. Because of its importance to the East India Company, the French plundered and destroyed the village of Chepauk and Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live.[8]. Millions of people starved to death throughout British ruled Tamil Nadu, around 3.9 million people perished in Chennai alone within two years of 1877–78.[9]. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. தமிழகம்; இந்தியா; வைரல் ஷேர்; உலகம்; இலங்கை; விளையாட்டு; வர்த்தகம்; ஆச� This area became the Fort St. George settlement. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. In 1674, the expanded colony had nearly 50,000 mostly British and European colonists and was granted its own corporate charter, thereby officially establishing the modern day city. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. In 1930, the Tamil Department was further expanded. [14], Chennai's earlier name of Madras is similarly mired in controversy. Always a tiny minority in comparison with the vast Indian population of the hinterlands, despite slow growth in natural birthrate and continued settlement, the British and European populations were made an ever-decreasing share of their city's populations. 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