[84] He avoided writing in the poetic style of Cicero, who had translated his own version of the Phainomena, and he wrote in a new style to meet the expectations of a Roman audience whose tastes were shaped by "modern" authors like Ovid and Virgil. [79], Piso was rumored to have been responsible for his death. 23 dec 2020. [6], Germanicus was born in Rome on 24 May 15 BC to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and had two younger siblings: a sister, Livilla; and a brother, Claudius. Life Germanicus. His death has been attributed to poison by ancient sources, but that was never proven. [89], The Annals by Tacitus is one of the most detailed accounts of Germanicus' campaigns against the Germans. Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire.He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. Germanicus took his legions by ship from Mainz to the river Ems, and from there to the site of the Varus Battle. 15, 24 May: born as son of Drusus and Antonia Minor; 4 BCE, 27 or 28 June: Adopted by Tiberius: Germanicus Caesar; 5 CE: Marries Vipsania Agrippina; 6 Birth of … New barriers and earthworks were put in place, securing the area between Fort Aliso and the Rhine. Germanicus was born on 24 May 15 BC. [58][62], Next Germanicus traveled through Syria to Armenia where he installed king Artaxias as a replacement for Vonones, whom Augustus had deposed and placed under house arrest at the request of the king of Parthia, Artabanus. Privacy Statement There he visited the site of Troy and the oracle of Apollo Claros near Colophon. His open and affable manners made him popular with the soldiers, but he remained loyal to the emperor. During the R… [17] Roman forces captured many cities, and those commanded by Germanicus took Raetinum, near Seretium (although it was destroyed in a fire set by the rebels during the siege), Splonum (in modern-day northern Montenegro) and Seretium itself (in modern-day western Bosnia). Piso left at the same time as Germanicus, but traveled directly to Athens and then to Rhodes where he and Germanicus met for the first time. Ondertussen ( 16 na Christus) is de controverse tussen Segestes, die tegen zijn wil in de oorlog is meegesleept, en Arminius op zijn hoogtepunt beland. 18 BC/17 BC in Magna Germania; d. AD 21 in Germania) was a chieftain of the Cherusci. The riotous army figures into the unpredictable wrath of the Roman people giving Tiberius the chance to reflect on what it means to lead. Eine Jahresbilanz – mit und trotz Corona, 26. He was accompanied, among his other generals, by Germanicus, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. The effort it would have taken to conquer Germania Magna was deemed too great when compared with the low potential for profit from acquiring the new territory. Germanicus, born in 15 BC, was a favorite of the Emperor Augustus, who saw him as a possible heir if anything happened to his own adopted son Tiberius. 18 v.Chr. The Kingdom of Commagene was split on whether or not to remain free or to become a province with both sides sending deputations, so Germanicus sent Quintus Servaeus to organize the province. After half a day of the work, he called off the burial of bones so that they could continue their war against the Germans. In addition to the recovery of two of the three lost eagles, Germanicus had fought Arminius, the leader who destroyed the three Roman legions in 9 AD, and defeated him in numerous battles. As accusations accumulated, it was not long before the well known accuser, Lucius Fulcinius Trio, brought charges against him. Arminius (Duits: Hermann der Cherusker) (ca. The victorious Romans then raised a mound with the inscription: "The army of Tiberius Caesar, after thoroughly conquering the tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe, has dedicated this monument to Mars, Jupiter, and Augustus. [28] The next year in August, Augustus died and on 17 September the Senate met to confirm Tiberius as princeps. He was honored with a triumphal insignia (without an actual triumph) and the rank (not the actual title) of praetor. In AD 17 he returned to Rome where he received a triumph before leaving to reorganize the provinces of Asia Minor, whereby he incorporated the provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene in AD 18. [28] They had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus and, when it became clear a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming, they revolted. [1] To the Roman people, Germanicus was the Roman equivalent of Alexander the Great due to the nature of his death at a young age, his virtuous character, his dashing physique, and his military renown. Commemorative arches were built in his honor and not just at Rome, but at the frontier on the Rhine and in Asia where he had governed in life. Augustus, in 13 CE, appointed Germanicus as proconsul of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, and entire Gaul and he commanded eight legions of the Roman army. https://www.patreon.com/history_uncoveredGermanicus was perhaps the most popular general of the Roman Empire. The couple had six children: Nero Caesar, … Germanicus commanded eight legions with Gallic and Germanic auxiliary units overland across the Rhine, up the Ems and Weser rivers as part of his last major campaign against Arminius in AD 16. [29], In Germany and Illyricum, the legions were in mutiny. [52], While Germanicus enjoyed some success in his campaigns against Arminius and his allies, Tiberius decided not to attempt to conquer the Germans and recalled Germanicus to Rome. Germanicus complied, moving Vonones to Cilicia, both to please Artabanus and to insult Piso, with whom Vonones was friendly. He was able to bury the soldiers’ mortal remains which were still lying around. Again he marched back victorious and at the direction of Tiberius, accepted the title of Imperator. The Senate had his property proscribed, forbade mourning on his account, removed images of his likeness, such as statues and portraits, and his name was erased from the base of one statue in particular as part of his damnatio memoriae. Then Germanicus returned to Mainz together with Segestes and his resisting daughter Thusnelda, Arminius’ wife. Germanicus married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. [86], Germanicus and Tiberius are often contrasted by ancient historians and poets who wrote using themes found in drama, with Germanicus playing the tragic hero and Tiberius the tyrant. [note 6] Germanicus was given imperium maius (extraordinary command) over the other governors and commanders of the area he was to operate; however, Tiberius had replaced the governor of Syria with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, who was meant to be his helper (adiutor), but turned out to be hostile. [92] His life and character have been portrayed in many works of art, the most notable of which include: First campaign against the Germanic tribes, Second campaign against the Germanic tribes, Third campaign against the Germanic tribes, Tiberius had to adopt Germanicus first because his own adoption by Augustus resulted in the loss of, Tacitus claims that the Romans won the battle at, Captives featured in the triumph include: "Segimuntus, the son of Segestes, the chief of the Cherusci, and his sister, named Thusnelda, the wife of Armenius, who led on the Cherusci when they treacherously attacked Quintilius Varus, and even to this day continues the war; likewise his son Thumelicus, a boy three years old, as also Sesithacus, the son of, That he violated this order is possibly confirmed by the fact that the trip is omitted in Germanicus', Despite the exhaustive list only two statutes are mentioned: that of Piso violating Germanicus', "Archaeological Traces of the Pannonian Revolt 6–9 AD:Evidence and Conjectures", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanicus&oldid=999385188, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, After 20 years of service, a full discharge was given, but after 16 years an immunity from military tasks, except to take part in actions (. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germans to break and flee into the forest. [13][14], By the time Germanicus had arrived in Pannonia, the rebels had resorted to raiding from the mountain fortresses to which they had withdrawn. They destroyed a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Tiberius divided his forces into three divisions: one under Silvanus, which advanced south-east from Sirmium; another commanded by Lepidus, which advanced north-west along the Una Valley from Siscia toward Burnum; and the third led by Tiberius and Germanicus in the Dalmatian hinterland. He returned to Syria by summer, where he found that Piso had either ignored or revoked his orders to the cities and legions. Less monumental, Augustus' horse received a funeral mound, which Germanicus wrote a poem about. During the reign of Augustus, Germanicus enjoyed an accelerated political career as the heir of the emperor's heir, entering the office of quaestor five years before the legal age in AD 7. November 2020 [3] He took the agnomen Germanicus, awarded posthumously to his father in honor of his victories in Germania, at which point he nominally became head of the family in 9 BC. Because the Roman legions were not so effective at countering this tactic, Tiberius deployed his auxiliary forces and divided his army into small detachments, allowing them to cover more ground and conduct a war of attrition against the rebels in their strong defensive positions. At a location Tacitus calls the pontes longi ("long causeways"), in boggy lowlands somewhere near the Ems, Arminius' troops attacked the Romans. [12] He was sent to Illyricum the same year to help Tiberius suppress a rebellion by the Pannonians and Dalmatians. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 22:22. The endurance of the Principate is challenged in these narratives, by the emperor's jealous trepidation toward competent commanders such as Germanicus. They went down the Ems toward the North Sea, but as they reached the sea, a storm struck, sinking many of the boats and killing many men and horses. Germanicus subdued the Chatti and liberated the Cheruscan »princeps« Segestes who was being besieged by his son-in-law Arminius. 23. [26][27], On 23 October AD 12, Tiberius held a triumph for his victory over the Pannonians and Dalmatians, which he had postponed on account of the defeat of Varus at Teutoburg Forest. It was here at the barrier that Arminius planned to defeat Germanicus Caesar. After the construction of a transport fleet Germanicus returned once again to the troubled area, fought a battle near the river Weser and sustained high casualties, also due to severe autumn storms during the retreat. December 2020 [28][39], Arminius called his tribe, the Cherusci, and the surrounding tribes to arms. Tacitus described Germanicus as a fine general who was kind and temperate, saying that his early death had taken a great ruler from Rome. [8], Germanicus became a quaestor in AD 7, four years before the legal age of 25. Arminius, the Cheruscan noble and military leader, had married Thusnelda, Segestes' daughter, against her … The continued support of the Pisones and his own friendship to Piso made Tiberius hesitant to hear the case himself. Despite his defeat, Arminius still held a high position among the Germanic tribes. Livia persuaded him to choose Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Claudius Nero, instead. His paternal grandmother was Livia, who had divorced his grandfather, Tiberius Claudius Nero around 24 years before Germanicus' birth, and was married to the emperor Augustus. Germanicus is een club met een rijke, ruim 100 jarige historie. Late in 14, the Roman prince Germanicus resumed the offensive, which provoked a reaction from the Germanic leader Arminius, who was able to unite several tribes. This victory, combined with the fact that winter was fast approaching, meant Germanicus's next step was to lead his army back to its winter quarters on the Rhine. Na diverse moordpartijen te hebben aangericht onder nietsvermoedende Marsen en de Chatten, begint Germanicus een achtervolging op Arminius. The two generals crossed the Rhine, made various excursions into enemy territory and, in the beginning of autumn, recrossed the river. Fijne feestdagen. [87], Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. The fighting lasted for two days, with neither side achieving a decisive victory. He dedicates a good portion of his Life of Caligula to Germanicus, claiming Germanicus' physical and moral excellence surpassed that of his contemporaries. In accordance with the precedent set by Augustus, Agrippa had been given command of those same provinces in the east when Agrippa was the intended successor to the empire. [note 1] Upon Germanicus' adoption into the Julii, his brother Claudius became the sole legal representative of his father, and his brother inherited the agnomen "Germanicus" as the new head of the family. In leading his troops across the Rhine without recourse to Tiberius, he contradicted the advice of Augustus to keep that river as the boundary of the empire, and opened himself to potential doubts from Tiberius about his motives in taking such independent action. A fort on the Lippe called Castra Aliso was besieged, but the attackers dispersed on sight of Roman reinforcements. In the years 11 CE and 12 CE, Germanicus checked the advancement of the German tribes across the Rhine led by Arminius. [16][14], Roman forces took the initiative in AD 9, and pushed into Dalmatia. [41], Germanicus' divisions met up to the north, and ravaged the countryside between the Ems and the Lippe, and penetrated to the Teutoburg Forest, a mountain forest in Western Germany situated between these two rivers. This served to emphasize the continuation of the domus Augusta across the transition from Augustus to Tiberius. [57], Tiberius gave money out to the people of Rome in Germanicus' name, and Germanicus was scheduled to hold the consulship next year with the emperor. On the other side, pro-Roman Cherusci, like Segestes, the father of Thusnelda and Segimuntos, were among the invited guests of the event. Bato the Daesitiate withdrew from Pannonia to Dalmatia, where he occupied the mountains of Bosnia and began conducting counter-attacks, most likely against the indigenous people who sided with the Romans. [73][77], On the day of Germanicus' death his sister Livilla gave birth to twins by Drusus. [44], Then Germanicus ordered Caius Silius to march against the Chatti with a mixed force of 3,000 cavalry and 33,000 infantry and lay waste to their territory, while he himself, with a larger army, invaded the Marsi for the third time and devastated their land. Hermann had lived in Rome as a hostage in his youth, where he had received a military education, and obtained Roman citizenship as well as the status of equestrian(petty noble) before returning to Germania and driving the Romans out. Yet, in a show of clemency not unlike that of the emperor, the Senate had Piso's property returned and divided equally between his two sons, on condition that his daughter Calpurnia be given 1,000,000 sesterces as dowry and a further 4,000,000 as personal property. However, Eusebius, our main reference for this, does not name Germanicus, and Tacitus makes no reference to this occasion either, which would have required Germanicus to make two trips to Greece within a year. [58] According to Tacitus, this was an attempt to separate Germanicus from his familiar troops and weaken his influence, but the historian Richard Alston says Tiberius had little reason to undermine his heir. He had gone there to relieve a famine in the country vital to Rome's food supply. He restored a temple of Spes,[58] and allegedly won a chariot race in the name of Tiberius at the Olympic games that year. While in the eastern provinces, he came into conflict with the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso. [note 3] He brought with him an army of levied citizens and former slaves to reinforce Tiberius at Siscia, his base of operations in Illyricum. A masterly combined movement by land and water enabled Germanicus to concentrate his forces against the main body of the Germans encamped on the Weser, and to crush them in two obstinately contested battles. Due to his prominence as heir to the imperial succession, he is depicted in many works of art. At his funeral, there were no procession statues of Germanicus. in handen van Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus – na zijn adoptie door Tiberius in 4 n.Chr. The oldest was named Germanicus and died young. [59], Germanicus had a busy year in 17. He sacked their capital Mattium (modern Maden near Gudensberg), pillaged their countryside, then returned to the Rhine. [40][note 4], In preparations for his next campaign, Germanicus sent Publius Vitellius and Gaius Antius to collect taxes in Gaul, and instructed Silius, Anteius, and Caecina to build a fleet. As a boy, Arminius is kidnapped from Germania and raised to be a Roman soldier; years later, he must choose between the Empire and the land he calls home. The Battle of Idistaviso, sometimes known as a first Battle of Minden or Battle of the Weser River, was fought in 16 AD between Roman legions commanded by Roman emperor Tiberius' heir and adopted son Germanicus, and an alliance of Germanic peoples commanded by Arminius. 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